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Mangrove Tree - Species Of Mangrove Trees, Ecology Of Mangrove Forest, Mangroves And Humans

forests tropical ecosystem tidal

Mangroves are trees in the family Rhizophoraceae, occurring in tropical and subtropical environments as swampy forests fringing muddy, tidal, estuarine, and oceanic shores. Mangrove forests are generally the first type of woody ecosystem that is encountered when a low-lying tropical shore is approached from the ocean.

Mangrove forests comprise a biome, that is, a distinctive ecosystem that occurs in appropriate habitats worldwide. Compared with other tropical forests, the Red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) in Florida. JLM Visuals. Reproduced by permission. mangrove ecosystem is rather poor in species. The richest mangrove forests occur closest to the equator, especially in the western Pacific Ocean. The number of man-grove species diminishes with increasing latitude in both hemispheres, with black mangrove (Avicennia spp.) generally being the last species to drop out, reaching about 32°N in Bermuda and 38°S in northern Australia.

Mangrove trees are well adapted to growing in saline water, having glands on their leaves for excreting their excess of absorbed salt, and evergreen foliage to aid in the retention of scarce nutrients. Some species have aerial roots that aid in transporting oxygen to their below-ground tissues, and seeds that are specialized for establishing in tidal mud.


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