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Grand Unified Theory

force particles quantum gravity

One of the major theoretical hurdles to a reachable synthesis of current theories of particles and force interactions into a grand unification theory (also known as Grand Unified Field Theory, Grand Unified Theory, or GUT) is the need to reconcile the evolving principles of quantum theory with the principles of general relativity advanced by German-American physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) nearly a century ago. The synthesis is made difficult because the unification of quantum mechanics (itself a unification of the laws of chemistry with atomic physics) with special relativity to form a complete quantum field theory consistent with observable data is itself not yet complete.

A grand unified theory of physics is not within the reach of our present technology and there are also theoretical obstacles to formulating a Grand unified theory.

A grand unified theory is a theory that will reconcile the electroweak force (the unified forces of electricity and magnetism) and the strong force (the force that binds quarks within the atomic nucleus together). A grand unified theory that could subsequently incorporate gravitational theory would, become the ultimate unified theory, often referred to by physicists as a "theory of everything" (TOE).

The technological barriers to a unified theory are a consequence of the tremendous energies required to verify the existence of the particles predicted by the theory. In essence, experimental physicists are called upon to recreate the conditions of the universe that existed during the first few millionths of a second of the Big bang - when the universe was tremendously hot, dense, and therefore energetic.

There are admittedly great difficulties and high mountains of inconsistency between quantum and relativity theory that may put such a "theory of everything" (TOE) far beyond our present grasp. Some scientists speculate that although a TOE is beyond our reach, we may be within reach of a grand unified theory (GUT) that, excepting quantum gravity, will unite the remaining fundamental forces.

Quantum theory was principally developed during the first half of the twentieth century through the independent work on various parts of the theory by German physicist Maxwell Planck (1858–1947), Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885–1962), Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961), English physicist P.A.M. Dirac (1902–1984) and German physicist Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976). Quantum mechanics fully describes wave particle duality, and the phenomena of superposition in term of probabilities. Quantum field theory describes and encompasses virtual particles and renormalization.

In contrast, special relativity describes space-time geometry and the relativistic effects of different inertial reference frames (i.e., the relativity of describing motion) and general relativity describes the nature of gravity. General relativity fuses the dimensions of space and time. The motion of bodies under apparent gravitational force is explained by the assertion that, in the vicinity of mass, space-time curves. The more massive the body the greater is the curvature or "force of gravity."

Avoiding the mathematical complexities, a fair simplification of the fundamental incompatibility between quantum theory and relativity theory may be found in the difference between the two theories with respect to the nature of the gravitational force. Quantum theory depicts a quantum field with a carrier particle for the gravitational force—that although not yet discovered—is termed a graviton. As a force carrier particle, the graviton is analogous to the photon that acts as the boson or carrie of the electromagnetism (i.e., light). In stark contrast, general relativity theory does away with the need for the graviton by depicting gravity as a consequence of the warping or bending of space-time by matter (or, more specifically, mass).

Although both quantum and relativity theories work extremely well in explaining the universe at the quantum and cosmic levels respectively, the theories themselves are fundamentally incompatible and hence the search for unification theories.

Such unifications are not trivial mathematical or rhetorical flourishes; they evidence an unswerving trail back towards the beginning of time and the creation of the universe in the big bang. What the electroweak unification reveals is that at higher levels of energy, (e.g., the energies associated with the big bang), the forces of electromagnetism and the weak force are really one in the same. It is only at the more modest present state of the universe, far cooler and less dense, that the forces take on the characteristic differences of electromagnetism and the weak force.

Experiments at high energy levels have revealed the existence of a number of new particles. According to modern field theory and the Standard model, particles are manifestations of field and particles interact (exert forces) through fields. Accordingly, for every particle (e.g., quarks and leptons—one form of a lepton is the electron) there must be an associate field. Forces between particles result from the exchange of particles that are termed virtual particles. Electromagnetism depends upon the exchange of photons (QED theory). The weak force depends upon the exchange of W+, W, and Zo particles. Eight different forms of gluons are exchanged in a gluon field to produce the strong force. Regardless, the energy requirements required to identify the particles associated with a unified field required by a grand unified theory are greater than present technologies can achieve. Most mathematical calculations involving quantum fields indicate that unification of the fields may require 1016 GeV. Some models allow the additional fusion of the gravitational force at 1018 GeV.

The higher energies needed are not simply a question of investing more time and money in building larger accelerators. Using our present technologies, the energy levels achievable by a particle accelerator are proportional to the size of the accelerator (specially the diameter of the accelerator). Alas, to archive the energy levels required to find the particles of a grand unified force would require an accelerator larger than our entire solar system.

Although a quantum explanation of gravity is not required by a grand unification theory that seeks only to reconcile electroweak and strong forces, it is important to acknowledge that the unification of force and particle theories embraced by the Standard model is not yet complete. Further, it may not be possible to rule out gravity and develop a unified theory of electroweak and strong forces that ignores gravity.

Resources

Books

Feynman, Richard and Steven Weinberg Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Greene, Brian. The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. New York: Vintage books, 2000.

Gribbin, John. Q is for Quantum: An Encyclopedia of Particle Physics. New York: The Free Press, 1998.

Hawking, Stephen. The Illustrated Brief History of Time, Updated and Expanded. New York: Bantam, 2001.

Klein, Etienne, et al. The Quest for Unity: The Adventure of Physics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Mohapatra, Rabindra. Unification and Supersymmetry. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Periodicals

Weinberg, Steven. "A Unified Physics by 2050?" Scientific American. December, 1999.

Other

Particle Data Group. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. "The Particle Adventure: The Fundamentals of Matter and Force" [cited February, 5, 2003]. <http://particleadventure.org/particleadventure/>.


K. Lee Lerner

KEY TERMS


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Electroweak force

—A unification of the fundamental forces of electromagnetism (that light is carried by quantum packets termed photons manifested by alternating fields of electricity and magnetism) and the weak force.

Field theory

—A concept first advanced Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) as part of his development of the theory of electromagnetism to explain the manifestation of force at a distance without an intervening medium to transmit the force. Einstein's general relativity theory is also a field theory of gravity.

Fundamental forces

—The forces of electromagnetism (light), weak force, strong force, and gravity. Aptly named, the strong force is the strongest force, but acts over only the distance of the atomic nucleus. In contrast, gravity is 1039 times weaker than the strong force and acts at infinite distances.

Gravitational force

—A force dependent upon mass and the distance between objects. The English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) set out the classical theory of gravity in his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). According to classical theory, gravitational force, always attractive between two objects, increases directly and proportionately with mass of the objects but is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. According to general relativity, gravity results from the bending of fused space-time. According to modern quantum theory, gravity is postulated to be carried by a vector particle termed a graviton.

Local gauge invariance

—In physics, a concept that asserts that all field equations ultimately contain symmetries in space and time. Gauge theories depend on difference in values as opposed to absolute values.

Strong force (or Strong interactions)

—A force that binds quarks together to form protons and neutrons and hold protons and neutrons—and to hold together the electrically repelling positively charged protons within the atomic nucleus.

Unified field theory

—In physics, a theory describing how a single set of particles and fields can become (or underlie) the observable fundamental forces of the electroweak force (electromagnetism and weak force unification) and the strong force.

Virtual particles

—A particle that is emitted and then reabsorbed by particles involved in a force interaction (e.g., the exchange of virtual photons between charged particles in involved in electromagnetic force interactions).

Weak force

—The force that causes transmutations of certain atomic particles. For example, weak force interactions in beta decay change neutrons and protons allowing Carbon-14 to decay into Nitrogen at a predictable rate useful in Carbon-14 dating.

User Comments

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almost 3 years ago

How do we resolve the above issues? Is there any mathematical progress
on this current obstacle to GUT? Let's see some mechanical &
technical possibility & hope to address these issues.

The New Mathematical Approach to Correct & Consistent GUT -
Riemann-Rementilla Vector Dual Field Hyperdensity Matrix [Non-Euclidean]
Mathematics

Just recently, there is this GUT & TOE combined scientific &
mathematical works termed as Nature's Blueprint by Bernard Rementilla, a
research mechanical engineer & thermodynamics professor in the
Philippines. This Nature's Blueprint, according to him, is basically a
reconstructive, technical & quantitative approach to extend GF
Bernhard Riemann's Positive Non-Euclidean Geometry into a Vector Field
(Hyperdensity-N-dimension of Dual Function) Matrix Mathematics that can
extra-polate a 52-dimension Nature's space-time-energy of the whole
Cosmos, which is the key to extract 2 fields of the Universe: Energy
Field & Force Field & the NEW HIDDEN 13 field
constants, respectively: 13 Field Constants of Energy Field & 13
Field Constants of Force Field, totaling new 26 Vector Field Constants
hidden into a 52-dimension Universe dual complex hyperdensity
space-time-energy and so on. These two vector fields, & the 26
hidden new constants are the key to the correct path to the true GUT
& TOE. The new extended version of GF Bernhard Riemann's positve Non
Euclidean Energy, termed the Riemann-Rementilla Vector Field
(Hyperdensity-N-Dimension Dual Function) Matrix Non-Euclidean
Mathematics, is what makes it technically, scientifically, &
numerically possible by which the accurate formulation of the true Grand
Unification Theory, & the exact configuration of the Theory of
Everything are consistently integrated in the mathematically combined
Energy Field & Force Field - embracing the totality of the
Universe's 52 dimensions that put life into every fundamental equation
of Physics, Chemistry, & Biology. All of these are found &
explained in the Nature's Blueprint.

This new Grand Unification Theory
Perspective is only & solely based on Rementilla's new configuration
of the Theory of Everything he termed "Nature's Blueprint" & is
mathematically possible <
Einstein's Relativity, Planck's Quantum Theory, Electro-weak Principle
by Salam, Glashow and Weinberg, & the existing, established
mathematical models of QED/QCD>> on account of this Blueprint's 26
new unifying field constants, mathematically integrating both energy
field & force field - the result is the unification of four (4)
forces of Nature: gravity, weak & strong forces, & emf.

Why Scientists & Mathematicians Fail to Configure the Correct GUT?

According to Rementilla, it is the complete absence of the Energy Field
& Force Field & their
combined NEW Nature's 26 unifying constants in the works of the
scientists & mathematicians that make them hardly see the accurate
configuration & formulation of nature's GUT, hence, they have
failed.

What is the Value of this Nature's Blueprint?

It is the complete key to SOLVE the climate change phenomena on Earth,
and so on.

To Google: pls include this in your Section: "Grand Unified Field Theory". All the above is new. But the sources of these things are from natural operating forces & energies in the 52 dimensions of the whole Universe. The Proof? A human being - you and I. I am serious on this. This is not a joke. Google may contact my thru my Linked Address. I am more than willing to present these at lenght. Thank you. Bernard Bautista Rementilla

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about 5 years ago

This is Rama Chandran,

From India, a scholar in Vedic Science enrolled myself for Ph.D. with Utkal University of Culture.

The Center of gravity theory of Newton may be wrong. The Vedas didn't talk about this.

My thesis will prove this and I am sure after submitting my thesis the entire Astronomy will be corrected and scientists should change their approach on Planets, light rays etc.


I may submit my thesis in next six months or may be eight months.

I am sure as a man from this Earth you will have your views open and look in to my theory and approach as in Vedas.

Don't see Vedas as a Hindu text but see that as a science!

When I approached your universities for Ph.D. they didn't consider as they feared that they must work again from the bottom layer and I am sure that the scientists need broad mind and courage to accept the fact.

I need few people who will look in to my theory on its merit.

A Ph.D. thesis is submitted only for a research and our scientist should come forward to analyze this too!

Hope you will agree with me

Regards
R.Rama chandran

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over 1 year ago

http://www.vixra.org/pdf/1205.0094v2.pdf

http://www.vixra.org/pdf/1205.0084v3.pdf

http://www.vixra.org/pdf/1204.0103v4.pdf

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over 1 year ago

I have been trying for years to find WHO invented the concept of the graviton. Science dictionaries simply say the word's origin lies with the word "gravity" (which a child could surmise) and that the word first appears in 1942. I gather it derives from followers of Planck rather than Einstein.
I gather that Einstein never cared for the concept of a gravity vector.

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over 1 year ago

1.0 What is this Ultimate, Complete Perspective-Solution…to our present global problems? Is there inherent, hidden Logic of Nature & a strong Scientific Fact of Phenomena to support this as a Complete Ultimate Solution…? Is this a Blueprint? Is it comprehensible to us humans..? Can we do it…? What is it all about? How?

Dr. Nigel Calder – w ho w rote a most notable topic on the Subject, “Einstein’s Universe” in 1979 – is predicting that after 1905, it will take a century or so to supersede or integrate at higher level both Quantum Physics & Relativity Physics & come out w ith a complete, unified mechanics. This is directed specifically, today, to answer more complex Nature’s crises of phenomena: Energy Crisis,
Pollutions, the Universe’s final fate, Black Hole, GUT’s & the rest of current & emerging scientific crises.

All these are too perplexing for us humans to grasp. It is exactly the point that the W orld renow ned & respected by government leaders w orld over, the late Rev. Herbert W. Armstrong has this to say in his book, “Mysteries of the Ages”, page xiii:

“ …this w orld’s humanit y has been blinded to who, what, & why man is… how man appeared on Earth. Man has been mystified by his inability to solve his problems, or find the answers to the perplexing quest ions of mankind and the
world he inhabits…. All these mysteries were long ago revealed by the One Supreme Authority of All Knowledge, but in a coded message not allow ed t o be revealed & decoded until our time.”

Quite indeed, perplexing questions in Rev. Armstrong’s quote above directly refer to World Crises today! And the One Supreme Authority of All Knowledge is directly pointing to the Origin of the Universe, that
refers to the 6 parameters of the Cosmic Intelligent Design is to all of us humans. This coded message is Nature’s inherent, hidden logic. It resides in the blueprint of all things that exist & by which all of us need to know & understand within the realms of our physical & non-physical senses – according to 6 parameters of the Cosmic Intelligent Design of Nature’s Internal & External Laws, Essence & Facts w ithin the field of 3 absolute values of w isdom and know ledge: Truth, Beauty, & Goodness.

Yes, this inherent, hidden Logic of Nature is today, and now – decoded in the Blueprint of Creation that can be concretely, & physically seen for the first time in human history in this Global Project#1: "The Nature's Blueprint". How is then this hidden Logic of Nature that exists in this Blueprint of Creation linked to our present 36 W orld –scale Problems? How?

Quite exactly today, some 100 years+ after 1905, w ith the appearance of much more complex natural catastrophes, highly perplexing phenomena in the form of global crises like poverty, climate change, crimes, pandemic viruses, global bio-invaders, heat-w ave, tsunamis, etc., still Nature is consistently speaking to us, humans, to w ake up and act correctly to restore our Planet Earth & all its inhabitants. In science & technology alone, it is strongly implied that the same is manifest in the collective scientific observation of W orld’s most notable mathematical scientists like Hawking, Weinberg, Penrose, Lederman, Witten, Greene, Polyakov and others. They all agree that there is the need in this modern time to resolve all these complex facts of phenomenal crises at global scale. These modern scientists are in consensus that there must be a new mathematical model or a new but hidden Nature’s code from the standpoint of a blueprint to be discovered & consequently to be revealed in due time – THAT IS EXACTLY THE POINT in this Invitation as much as it is uniquely one & only one book on Earth as soon as it is published.
The BooK Poject#1: The Blueprint of Creation is found in & is presented in the Book Project introduced here.].

The objective is to effectively solve, among other crises or problems at w orld-scale level, including all Physics crises! and beyond the physical phenomena of Nature. This Book Project
goes beyond the physical implication(s) of this scientific objective of my fellow scientists just mentioned above. How come?

The Book Project#1 presents exactly the Blueprint that shows to prove human science, human mathematics, human technology, & human metaphysics do lack the true wisdom of the absolute, new know ledge from the Highest Cosmic Intelligent Design of Nature. This Blueprint reveals to us, the humankind, for the first time the 6 Parameters [why, how , when, where, what & who] of Absolute Truth, Absolute Beauty, & Absolute Goodness in the context of the purpose of the Principle of Creation & Re-creation. It completes & transcends the principle-motto of Knowledge-Understanding Integration via experiential information approach designed by The Wall Street Journal as much as it sensitizes and comprehensively resolves, once & for all, in 6 parameters the Moral Dimension Missing Link of Humanity.

Hence, in the process, it addresses salient issues of and completes the restorative context of Elie Wiesel Philosophy in the perspective of creating a global peace & order. This naturally corrects or rectifies the Machiavellian Philosophy of Human Activity which has, until now, damaged the human quest for physical & spiritual dimensions of order & law in the perspective of moral function & structure of three (3) most important attributes of humanity: 1. True Life 2. True Love and True Lineage.

<>

1.1 The 1st Most Critical Step in Approaching the Blueprint: Heart
Dr.Roger Penrose himself, in a nutshell, puts it concisely in his book, “The Road to Reality – A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe”, 2004 Edition, page 1045, Chapter 34:

“ …we shall need powerful, new ideas whic h will take us in the direc tions signific antly different from those c urrently being pursued … some subtle c hange in perspec tive…”

referring to the resolution to inc onsistencies in Physic s Crises – alone, this has exac tly hit to the bulls-eye of the heart of the problems as what had earlier been contemplated on by Nigel Calder back in 1979 as mentioned above as critically more estimated it is today, yet much more than complex & much more than perplexing & too complicated… Why? And why?

It is because, today, as far much too critically pressing & seriously urgent more than any other in the context of Water Crises w orldw ide on account of currently insufficient scientific know ledge, a fact grimly confirmed by no less than World’s authority in environmental science & hydrology: Dr. Keith Beven. Dr. Beven is also the author of Time, Science, & Water Framework Directive . This phenomenon in global Water Management
Crisis is further affirmed by equally an authority in the field, UNDP expert Kevin Watkins w ho
says :

“ … we need a new model of w ater management
for the 21st Century w ater crisis…”
The Core-Key: The Heart of the Blueprint: Two-way – Duality Law:
Physics of Nature : The Give & Take Action and Give & Take Reaction
Mathematics of Nature [Einstein’s Cosmic Law of Interaction>: The Law of Nature lies deep into the Mysterious Order, Balance & Unity of Forces
in the Universe that manifests hidden Cosmic Intelligence.

Please note that Water is the key to Balance Energy Equation of the Earth’s Biosphere Metabolism System . Yes, our Planet Earth is breathing, & has geo-thermodynamic conditions which are mathematically connected to the Spatial Vector Balance Interaction of 3 Planets in the Solar System: Mars, Earth,
& Venus. This phenomenon creates mathematical stability in the Inner Core Field of the Solar System, together with Mercury, very much like to that of interaction of the 3-Phase Phenomena of Nature: Earth , Ocean & Air . The same is true with the Universe which is breathing thru the black holes at, not one hole as currently known but two, etc., etc.>, which is mathematically connected to the Total Balancing Energy Equilibrium Interaction Mechanism of the Earth’S Three (3) System Operators:
Air System Operator – Gas Vector Field Earth System Operator – Solid Vec tor Field Water System - Liquid Vector Field –
The Core of External Solution Balancing Field.

Any disturbance on such highly delicate balance in the water system destroys the equilibrium of the whole Earth’s Total Balancing Energy Equilibrium Interaction Mechanism resulting to natural occurrence of destructive phenomena like Tsunami, Heat Wave, Hurric anes, Earthquakes, Droughts, Floods, Pandemic viruses, etc., inc luding the Global Warming or climate change. From the bottom to the top of all these crises, scientists admit that Time is the essence in terms of repair, to which Mexican Environment Minister, Jose Luis Luege, in a recent International Conference on Global Warming & Greenhouse gases held in Mexican City , Monterrey this December 2006, warns the delegates:
“ Time is running out and the size of the challenge is enormous..”

At the very least, today, whether we like it or not, we all pass these conditions without exemption & yet we need to solve problems that we naturally understand in our human perspec tive. As muc h as we must have a concise picture of what our condition of life is on Earth in the face of the harsh reality of the worst & greatest challenge we, all of us on Earth, are facing against the backdrop of such global crises in two realms of reality:
- the Internal (Subject: Heart w/in the Mind & New Thinking Perspective & the External (Object: Physical Body & Water) Realms <<
or what is the true meaning & value of Time, Space, & Energy of the vast Universe w ith respect to humans on Earth, so the Earth w ill be safe to live, w hy… etc., etc.;
w e all need to know all these… up to the required period of time… that is linked to (1.3) The Universe & Its C enter: The Great Attractor… Dark energy… Black hole… Hidden dimension(s)

• What are the connection(s) [of these all] w ith respect to the balanced GTA & GTR betw een physical & non-physical dimensions of both Adam & Eve in the center of the Universe, @ the heart of the Cosmos …?

• Is the Unity of Mind & Body of every human being [Adam & Eve] the key to these balancing GTA & GTR between the physical & non-physical dimensions of Adam & Eve on Earth – with respect to the 52 dimensions of the Universe @ the heart of these connections mentioned above…?

With respect to the so-called Religions [in search of the ultimate source of life,love
& lineage...]

The answers to all these questions above have key link to the true mathematical & philosophical formulae of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) & Theory of Everything (TOE) - Bernard Bautista Rementilla. gpw.bernard.rementilla@gmail.com, gpw.oceanpowerenergyresearchBR@gmail.com

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almost 2 years ago

Dear sir/madam; with respect
Would you please tell me the answer of my question :
is there an unjustifiable differences between the intensity of magnetic field on the earth

especially on the poles as shown in the following mail :

[http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/WMM/data/wmm-F05.pdf]
and if there is ; then there is a theory (about unity of gravity and electro magnetic)which explains
these differences .
the theory which units gravity and electro magnetic in the complex time-space has the form of
complex gravity with a complex mass-charge factor.
This theory Not only explains gravity and electromagnetic equations exactly , but predicates a vertically magnetic field on the earth approximately about 0.2 guesses.
can I submit that for you to comment ? would you please help me to complete and present that .
thanks. Wait for your answer.
your sincerely;
mohammadi.s.m
email : seid.m.m@gmail.com

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almost 2 years ago

Dear sir/madam; with respect
Would you please tell me the answer of my question :
is there an unjustifiable differences between the intensity of magnetic field on the earth

especially on the poles as shown in the following mail :

[http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/WMM/data/wmm-F05.pdf]
and if there is ; then there is a theory (about unity of gravity and electro magnetic)which explains
these differences .
the theory which units gravity and electro magnetic in the complex time-space has the form of
complex gravity with a complex mass-charge factor.
This theory Not only explains gravity and electromagnetic equations exactly , but predicates a vertically magnetic field on the earth approximately about 0.2 guesses.
can I submit that for you to comment ? would you please help me to complete and present that .
thanks. Wait for your answer.
your sincerely;
mohammadi.s.m
email : seid.m.m@gmail.com

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over 3 years ago

Hi, We grow up religious but we are borne with only logic. The problem is when to use only the logic. A argument that would use the work time is a false argument. Time is not a observed event of motion it is a measurement of distance. Math will not answer the everything theory , it will only quantize events with a distance relationship. Einstein never professed the answer, we should accept his conclusion. Try precession at the (speed) light motion and you will have the answer. A body that is in spin and is acted upon by energy/mass transfer will precess a number of frequencies and describe a circular event around radiant source. Simple enough to last to infinity. All you need is mass motion precession. Terry Hamilton

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over 3 years ago

This is a math approach and a argument that is based on fundamental religious constructs. Time is a distance measurement not a event , we can understand the workings of the universe but it will not free us from the change we know is coming , and we need to formulate the third law of motion or if you must the fourth law of motion which will be precession . If a electron is not traveling at the speed of light then it must be spinning at the speed of light... ie. inertia. Newton was right. 007 wingman YouTube.