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Cosmology - Evolution Of Cosmological Thought, The Expanding Universe, The Big Bang, Implications Of The Big Bang

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Cosmology is the study of the origin, structure and evolution of the universe.

The origins of cosmology predate the human written record. The earliest civilizations constructed elaborate myths and folk tales to explain the wanderings of the Sun, Moon, and stars through the heavens. Ancient Egyptians tied their religious beliefs to celestial objects and Ancient Greek and Roman philosophers debated the composition and shape of Earth and the Cosmos. For more than 13 centuries, until the Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Greek astronomer Ptolemy's model of an Earth-centered Cosmos composed of concentric crystalline spheres dominated the Western intellectual tradition.

Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus's (1473–1543) reassertion of the once discarded heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory sparked a revival of cosmological thought and work among the astronomers of the time. The advances in empiricism during the early part of the Scientific Revolution, embraced and embodied in the careful observations of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), found full expression in the mathematical genius of the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) whose laws of planetary motion swept away the need for the errant but practically useful Ptolemaic models. Finally, the patient observations of the Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo, in particular his observations of moons circling Jupiter and of the phases of Venus, empirically laid to rest cosmologies that placed Earth at the center of the Cosmos.

English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac New ton's (1642–1727), important Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical principles of natural philosophy) quantified the laws of motion and gravity and thereby enabled cosmologists to envision a clockwork-like universe governed by knowable and testable natural laws. Within a century of Newton's Principia, the rise of concept of a mechanistic universe led to the quantification of celestial dynamics, that, in turn, led to a dramatic increase in the observation, cataloging and quantification of celestial phenomena. In accord with the development of natural theology, scientists and philosophers argued conflicting cosmologies that argued the existence and need for a supernatural God who acted as "prime mover" and guiding force behind a clockwork universe. In particular, French mathematician, Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749–1827) argued for a completely deterministic universe, without a need for the intervention of God. Most importantly to the development of modern cosmology, Laplace asserted explanations for celestial phenomena as the inevitable result of time and statistical probability.

By the dawn of the twentieth century, advances in mathematics allowed the development of increasingly sophisticated cosmological models. Many of advances in mathematics pointed toward a universe not necessarily limited to three dimensions and not necessarily absolute in time. These intriguing ideas found expression in the intricacies of relativity and theory that, for the first time, allowed cosmologists a theoretical framework upon which they could attempt to explain the innermost workings and structure of the universe both on the scale of the subatomic world and on the grandest of galactic scales.

As direct consequence of German-American physicist Albert Einstein's (1879–1955) relativity theory, cosmologists advanced the concept that space-time was a creation of the universe itself. This insight set the stage for the development of modern cosmological theory and provided insight into the evolutionary stages of stars (e.g., neutron stars, pulsars, black holes, etc.) that carried with it an understanding of nucleosythesis (the formation of elements) that forever linked the physical composition of matter on Earth to the lives of the stars.

Twentieth-century progress in cosmology has been marked by corresponding and mutually beneficial advances in technology and theory. American astronomer Edwin Hubble's (1889–1953) discovery that the universe was expanding, Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson's observation of cosmic background radiation, and the detection of the elementary particles that populated the very early universe all proved important confirmations of the Big Bang theory. The Big Bang theory asserts that all matter and energy in the Universe, and the four dimensions of time and space were created from the primordial explosion of a singularity of enormous density, temperature, and pressure.

During the 1940s Russian-born American cosmologist and nuclear physicist George Gamow (1904–1968) developed the modern version of the big bang model based upon earlier concepts advanced by Russian physicist Alexander (Aleksandr Aleksandrovich) Friedmann (also spelled as Fridman, 1888–1925) and Belgian astrophysicist and cosmologist Abbé Georges Lemaître (1894–1966). Big bang based models replaced static models of the universe that described a homogeneous universe that was the same in all directions (when averaged over a large span of space) and at all times. Big bang and static cosmological models competed with each other for scientific and philosophical favor. Although many astrophysicists rejected the steady state model because it would violate the law of mass-energy conservation, the model had many eloquent and capable defenders. Moreover, the steady model was interpreted by many to be more compatible with many philosophical, social and religious concepts centered on the concept of an unchanging universe. The discovery quasars and of a permeating cosmic background radiation eventually tilted the cosmological argument in favor of big bang-based models.

Technology continues to expand the frontiers of cosmology. The Hubble Space Telescope has revealed gas clouds in the cosmic voids and beautiful images of fledgling galaxies formed when the universe was less than a billion years old. Analysis of these pictures and advances in the understanding of the fundamental constituents of nature continue to keep cosmology a dynamic discipline of physics and the ultimate fusion of human scientific knowledge and philosophy.


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10 months ago

The God/Nature: Only single name for the absolute place or Nature or God or Dark energy or absolute time sole dimension or sole dimension of power of the things of the universe, great space or the location the center of the connectors between the great world or the great universes, location of the beginning or ending or the most deepest place, same location of place period or the matter, location of the big black hole or primordial black hole or before big bang, huge reserve of the natural force etc, is Nature (The God). See at https://www.academia.edu/20969073/God_Big_Bang_and_Evolution

Big Bang: At the time of the beginning of the creation or from the absolute zero of time or from the God, part of the power of the God became divisible as a result of the big bang. The part of energy had been divided in the beginning of creation from the large field of energy, which is below 50% of total energy. In the most of natural power reserved in God or big black hole from which, the world of gravitation become influenced. See at https://shahidurrahmansikder.wordpress.com/2010/05/26/big-bang/

Evolution: “Everything of the world of matter including the present visible unit is the result of evolution from the big bang”. The changing function of everything in the universe is going on always. The present scenery was not similar with past and also will not resemble with the future, the present and past space-time energy absolute zero of absolute time. As per formula of evolution; See at https://shahidurrahmansikder.wordpress.com/2010/01/03/21/

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almost 2 years ago

Thanks for your article, it can help me.
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almost 3 years ago

This is my cosmological thought:

Hypothesis of grain structured photon


In the 1920's, Edwin Hubble observed that there was a simple correlation between the distance separating galaxies from Earth and the shifting of their light waves towards redness. He interpreted this as the result of the galaxies moving away from us. This discovery became the basis of a new theory that the universe was dynamic and expanding. His discovery complemented a suggestion of a Belgian priest, Abbe Lemaitre, that a single super-explosion gave the universe its beginning. Since the distance from Earth to the most distant perceivable galaxies is estimated to be around 13.8 billion light years away, this is the age attributed to the universe and its reaches.

But is this the correct age and measurement of the universe? Cosmic objects seen close to the threshold of visibility are classified as being the youngest objects, formed shortly after the super-explosion popularly known as Big Bang. If we accept the estimate that they started giving out light around half a million years after the super-explosion, the light they emitted long ago, right after they went ablaze, should disappear from the space that was, back then, a sphere with a radius of half a million years times the speed of expansion shortly after explosion. These objects couldn't release light beyond that spherical space, which continuously expands, because there was no outside yet. (The Big Bang shouldn't only be associated with the explosion of material but also with the explosion of space.) The only possibility to observe those youngest objects billion years after super-explosion is that the universe expanded with the speed many times faster than the speed of light. A daring assumption has been made that in a fraction of a second into its existence, the universe expanded to an enormous size, and that event was named inflation. Technically, the speed of expansion of the universe being higher than the speed of light does not contradict a theory of relativity which doesn't apply to it, but rather to the cosmic objects moving around inside the created space. However, as far as I know, no cosmic objects have been observed to drift away from us at speeds even close to light speed. Neither universe is expected to expand now so rapidly.

The cosmological model popularly known as The Big Bang Theory didn't seem quite correct to me. And this model didn't clarify everything to professional astronomers either. (Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington and Fred Hoyle, among others, did not feel comfortable with Big Bang Theory.) By observing the oldest cosmic objects, it emerged that these objects (seem to) drift away from us slower than objects that were created later. That, in turn, would indicate a temporal acceleration in the expansion of the universe. However, for that to be possible, a force stronger than gravity, and one going against the gravitational pull would be necessary. Without any known sources of such a force in the perceivable world, a hypothesis was formed about dark energy, which possesses qualities of exerting negative pressure homogeneously spread out through space. In other words, it was assumed by default that this energy is what is causing now the universe to expand. And as it expands, the density of matter decreases faster than the density of dark energy, whose influence ultimately begins to dominate and causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate.

A particular hypothesis came to my mind about the structure of a photon, which greatly simplifies the generally accepted cosmological model. A photon is an energy impulse which has qualities of both matter and waves. In 1900 Max Planck postulated that a photon carries energy equal to the frequency of an electromagnetic wave multiplied by a constant number, known in quantum physics as Planck's constant. I, however, offer the modest proposal that every photon is a package of elementary impulses of energy, which I will call als (from the Ancient Greek symbols ἅλς which mean „grain”.) An als is the smallest possible impulse, indivisible and so weak that when isolated, it exerts no effects detectable by the human eye nor any instrument currently known to man. It can be regarded as the counterpart to the Higgs particle, which is the most basic building block of matter.

Every emitted photon consists of a certain amount of alses, which minimally vibrate chaotically within a photon but manage to stay together with a force which resembles viscosity. This force keeps alses together and creates an invisible barrier from which alses trapped inside bounce back. However, there is a small probability that an als approaching the barrier finds itself outside, leaves the photon (the phenomenon called in quantum mechanics a tunneling) and starts travelling through the cosmos. The further the travel of the electromagnetic wave, and the greater the number of alses in a photon (i.e. the greater the amount of energy), the higher the chances of such a separation. Such a grainy structure would explain the shifting of the spectrum of far away objects towards redness as well as the increase in shifting together with the increase in distance from the observer.

Are the furthest observable galaxies, which are about 13.8 billion light years away from us, the indicators of the boundaries of the universe? Not necessarily. The above mentioned hypothesis of grain structured photon predicts that every emitted photon, after travelling a certain critical distance, loses enough energy to become too weak to be observed - it is reduced to single one or a small handful of alses. Perhaps that critical distance is approximately 13.8 billion light years. That would seemingly create the impression that the universe had such dimensions and the observer was located in the middle of it.

The above hypothesis eliminates the need to accept the assumption that the universe is expanding and that it came to be as a result of the Big Bang. But first of all it explains the supposed acceleration of expansion of the universe: the apparent acceleration is a result of the decrease in probability of an als being released during the travel of a photon through cosmic space with the decrease in the number of basic impulses of energy within a photon. In other words, a photon with less energy (one that travels to its observer from a far distance) looses energy slower than a photon with more energy (one coming from an object closer by). Mathematically speaking, the dependence of the rate of extinguishing of a photon on a distance is nonlinear. Such a loss of energy in turn, according to Planck's law, causes a decrease in frequency of the electromagnetic wave, moving it towards red. It was precisely this effect that was observed by astronomers in the 1990s and led them to conclusion that the universe is flying apart. So, maybe a cosmological constant, introduced by Einstein and dark energy are the mistaken concepts, after all.

The above proposed hypothesis of a grain structured photon may be used additionally to explain the phenomenon of gravity. Assuming for a moment that this hypothesis is accurate, one would expect cosmic space to not be a complete vacuum but rather filled with electromagnetic radiation composed of multitudes of als moving in every direction. Upon reaching any cosmic object, this radiation exerts pressure similar to that which is exerted by any other stream of photons. At the moment that two material objects find themselves close to one another, they „obscure” each other. A stream of als impulses coming from the direction of the second object is reduced proportionally to the mass of the obscuring object, just like cosmic pressure, which in turn causes both objects to attract each other. If the hypothesis of the grainy structure of photons and the erosion of elementary impulses during electromagnetic wave movement through space were correct, then the sought for gravitational waves could be nothing other than reduced cosmic pressure coming from the direction of all matter in the universe.

While reading magazines about stereophonic equipment I've come across the following sentence a number of times: the simpler a device is, the better it is. This rule has proven to be true in the past in the field of Astronomy as well: having the Earth and the sun switch places rendered adding more and more epicycles to the sun's orbit superfluous. The model of the solar system became simpler and more accurate. And the same goes for the above hypothesis, which would eliminate the need for a number of other hypotheses which have been introduced up till now in order to achieve a model of the universe which corresponds with the observations of troublesome phenomena.

Andrzej Baniukiewicz, Ph.D.

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almost 5 years ago

it kind of sucks that the earth is at the center of the cosmos



but too bad.. now where is red giant betelgeuse



the "3d model of the ubiverse"(lol universe) seems t o apear to suggect that out cosmose is an un developed sphericle void that is having a beam shot threw it by a near by super giant black hole quadrillion lightyears on diameter..



makes me think that if it was, then maybe the mater from the polar jets is being ejected from the super blackhole cosmose compleatly and as it enters extracosmic space. it disintigrates and only the most dense components can survie the transition from threw the extracosmic space between that cosmos and our cosmos. then once it enters out cosmos , it starts to re-coaless again as it passes threw at some fraction of the speed of light.. but that needs more infor because if it were going that fast, then it would warp everything.. electrons would not orbit correctly light would go faster in one direction trhan others..

but if it were causeing repiulsion between coalessing objects, then that could explane the excellerating expantion. and maybe it could be a tighter beam from a more distant cosmose and could explane why its wider at opne end.. because the oldest end has been expanding longer as it t ransitiones t hrew the change of media