Other Free Encyclopedias » Science Encyclopedia » Science & Philosophy: Chimaeras to Cluster » Chlorine - History Of Chlorine, Properties And Uses Of Chlorine, Compounds Of Chlorine

Chlorine - Properties And Uses Of Chlorine

water compounds atoms oxidizing

Because it is so reactive, chlorine is never found alone-chemically uncombined—in nature. It is prepared commercially by passing electricity through a water solution of sodium chloride or through molten sodium chloride.

When released as the free element, chlorine gas consists of diatomic (two-atom) molecules, as expressed by the formula Cl2. The gas is very irritating to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and lungs. It can be smelled in the air at a concentration of only 3 parts per million (ppm); it causes throat irritation at 15 ppm, coughing at 30 ppm, and is very likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths at 1,000 ppm.

Chlorine gas dissolves readily in water, reacting chemically with it to produce a mixture of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), plus some unreacted Cl2. This solution, called chlorine water, is a strong oxidizing agent that can be used to kill germs or to bleach paper and fabrics. It is used to obtain bromine (another member of its halogen family) from sea water by oxidizing bromide ions to elemental bromine.

In organic chemistry, chlorine is widely used, not only as an oxidizing agent, but as a way of making many useful compounds. For example, chlorine atoms can easily replace hydrogen atoms in organic molecules. The new molecules, with their chlorine atoms sticking out, are much more reactive and can react with various chemicals to produce a wide variety of other compounds. Among the products that are manufactured by the use of chlorine somewhere along the way are antiseptics, dyes, explosives, foods, insecticides, medicines, metals, paints, paper, plastics, refrigerants, solvents, and textiles.

Probably the most important use of chlorine is as a water purifier. Every water supply in the United States and in much of the rest of the world is rendered safe for drinking by the addition of chlorine. Several chlorine-releasing compounds are also used as general disinfectants.

Bleaching is another very practical use of chlorine. Until it was put to use as a bleach around 1785, bright sunlight was the only way people could bleach out stains and undesired colors in textiles and paper. Today, in the form of a variety of compounds, chlorine is used almost exclusively. Here's how it works: many compounds are colored because their molecules contain loose electrons that can absorb specific colors of light, leaving the other colors unabsorbed and therefore visible. An oxidizing agent such as chlorine water or a compound containing the hypochlorite ion OCl- removes those electrons (an oxidizing agent is an electron remover), which effectively removes the substance's light-absorbing power and therefore its color. Ordinary laundry bleach is a 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite in water.

Among the important organic compounds containing chlorine are the chlorinated hydrocarbons-hydrocarbons that have had some of their hydrogen atoms replaced by chlorine atoms. A variety of chlorinated hydrocarbons have been used as insecticides. One of the earliest to be used was DDT, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane. Because it caused serious environmental problems, its use has largely been banned in the United States. Other chlorinated hydrocarbons that are used as pesticides include dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, lindane, chlordane, and heptachlor. Because all of these compounds are very stable and do not degrade easily, they also have serious environmental drawbacks.


Chlorine - Compounds Of Chlorine [next] [back] Chlorine - History Of Chlorine

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

almost 9 years ago

Did you know?:



CHLORINE

~commonly used as an antiseptic; purifies drinking water and swimming pools

~used as a war gas in 1915

~mostly used in paper products, dyes, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, paints, solvents, and plastics

~liquid chlorine burns the skin

~gaseous chlorine irritates mucus membranes

~low as 3.5 ppm can be detected as an odor, and 1000 ppm can be fatal after a few deep breaths

~from the Greek word Chloros; refers to the greenish-yellow gas color

~discovered in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, who thought it contained oxygen. Sir Humphry Davy named chlorine in 1810, who insisted it was an element

~produced mainly by electrolysis of Sodium chloride (NaCl).



These facts are every bit true. Copy them if you like; I had to do these for my Chemistry Project. Good luck!!!

Vote down Vote up

about 10 years ago

Did you know chlorine wasn't actually an official element until 1811, when Sir Humphry Davy announced to the Royal Society of London that gaseous chlorine was officially an element.

Vote down Vote up

almost 11 years ago

Chlorine is used worldwide to purify water supply as the ultimate defense against waterborne microbiological infection. It also plays a critical role in the productions of thousands of commercial products.it is also essential in the manufacture medicine.

Vote down Vote up

about 11 years ago

Chlorine

Atomic Number: 17

Atomic mass: 35.4527

Family Name: Halogen

It’s a nonmetal and a gas and very reactive

Uses: Water purification, bleaches

Who discovered it: Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Name came from: the Greek word khlôros (green)

What it looks like: Green/Yellowish

History: found in 1774

Vote down Vote up

over 9 years ago

We would like to know the chlorine concentration proportion in soakimg instruments for sterilization, disinfecting Delivery Room and for disinfecting surfaces. We hope to hesr s positive response as soon as possible. Thank You! God Bless!

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

i need a minimum of 5 properties for chlorine and 2 sources please please please my work has to be turned in tomorrow

Vote down Vote up

about 8 years ago

hey my name is shannon and im sooooo cool and i think thiss site is Amasing whoop whoop xxxxxxxxxxxxxx except i dont use it hahahahaha lol xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Vote down Vote up

over 7 years ago

WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NITROGEN.

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

how is a mixture of chlorine bleach and water useful for lighting?

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

Chlorine chemistry is essential to more than 93 percent of prescription pharmaceuticals sold in the U.S. These include critical drugs used to treat high cholesterol, stomach ulcers, anemia, cancer, epilepsy and depression. For U.S. and Canadian consumers, the total benefit of chlorine chemistry in pharmaceuticals is estimated to be $450 billion per year.





Very reactive!

Toxic gas that irritates the respiratory system and can be fatal

Poisonous

Particularly reactive in heat

Will react in the presence of moisture

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

this site is wonderful i got all the information on chlorine which i needed

im greatful to you for giving me and infact all the users such a great help by producing this site thank you alottt.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

lol nice one kelly

hey wat are the least uses of chlorine i need three plz : )

Vote down Vote up

almost 11 years ago

kelly you were suppose to leave a scholarly comment....jezzzzzzzzz

Vote down Vote up

almost 11 years ago

chlorine is dangerous if you eat it

Vote down Vote up

almost 8 years ago

Ok well i think ur gay

Vote down Vote up

almost 8 years ago

Ok well i think ur gay

Vote down Vote up

about 11 years ago

CHOLRINE IS GAS AND WHEN IT IS PUT IN WATER IT TURNS INTO A LIQUID

Vote down Vote up

over 11 years ago

chlorine is found in your neiborhood pool.

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

its a very good site i should come here every time i have a qustion its ausome i love it

Vote down Vote up

almost 8 years ago

my mom is making me do a paper on chlorine for school gosh i just have to have a science teacher for a mom

Vote down Vote up

about 8 years ago

............confusing..

Vote down Vote up

about 8 years ago

hey its me again please love me ermmm i mean this site im 14 yearz old yey hey boyz

Vote down Vote up

about 8 years ago

iuymh98ui noj

Vote down Vote up

about 8 years ago

o mi gosh this is wonderful.......i got each and every detail i wanted!!

Vote down Vote up

over 8 years ago

Can chlorine be used as a cleaner for removing bath stains

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

How does Chlorides kill bacteria. Is it the Oxygen or some other method.

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

its yelow-green, 2.5 times denser than air, and is used in medicines

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

How does chlorines use link to its properties?

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

this site is great , especialy now that i have a practical coming up soon !!!

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

thanx so much it helps a TON

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

cool site man...........

Vote down Vote up

over 10 years ago

ths site is wonderful bt plz add medicinal uses of chlorine in detail..thnx

Vote down Vote up

almost 11 years ago

hey it is a wonderful site

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

http://www.situsterpercaya.com/rajapoker88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya