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Carbon Monoxide - Uses

gas nickel iron chemistry

Carbon monoxide is a very important industrial compound. In the form of producer gas or water gas, it is widely used as a fuel in industrial operations. The gas is also an effective reducing agent. For example, when carbon monoxide is passed over hot iron oxides, the oxides are reduced to metallic iron, while the carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide.

In another application a mixture of metallic ores is heated to 122–176°F (50–80°C) in the presence of producer gas. All oxides except those of nickel are reduced to their metallic state. This process, known as the Mond process, is a way of separating nickel from other metals with which it commonly occurs.

Yet another use of the gas is in the Fischer-Tropsch process for the manufacture of hydrocarbons and their oxygen derivatives from a combination of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide also reacts with certain metals, especially iron, cobalt, and nickel, to form compounds known as carbonyls. Some of the carbonyls have unusual physical and chemical properties that make them useful in industry. The highly toxic nickel tetracarbonyl, for example, is used to produce very pure nickel coatings and powders.

See also Metallurgy.

David E. Newton

Resources

Books

Boikess, Robert S., and Edward Edelson. Chemical Principles. 2nd edition. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1981, pp. 672 - 673.

Brown, Theodore L., and H. Eugene LeMay Jr. Chemistry: The Central Science. 3rd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985, pp. 390-392, 66 -669.

Budavari, Susan, ed. The Merck Index. 11th edition. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Company, 1989, pp. 1821.

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinneman Press, 1997.

Lide, D.R., ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2001.

Matthews, John A., E.M. Bridges, and Christopher J. Caseldine The Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Environmental Change. New York: Edward Arnold, 2001.

Partington, J.R. A Short History of Chemistry. 3rd edition. London: Macmillan & Company, 1957, pp. 49, 116, 142, 151.


Other

The United Nations. "The Conference and Kyoto Protocol." (March 2003). <http://unfccc.int/resource/convkp.html>.

KEY TERMS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Combustion

—A form of oxidation that occurs so rapidly that noticeable heat and light are produced.

Hemoglobin

—An iron-containing, complex molecule carried in red blood cells that binds oxygen for transport to other areas of the body.

Incomplete combustion

—Combustion that occurs in such a way that fuel is not completely oxidized. The incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuel, for example, always results in the formation of some carbon monoxide.

Intercellular spaces

—The spaces between cells in tissue.

Reductant (reducing agent)

—A chemical substance which reduces materials by donating electrons to them.

Toxicity

—The extent to which a substance is poisonous.

[back] Carbon Monoxide - Physiological Effects

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over 3 years ago

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