Capacitor

energy electrical capacitors charged

A capacitor stores electrical energy. It is charged by hooking into an electrical circuit. When the capacitor is fully charged a switch is opened and the electrical energy is stored until it is needed. When the energy is needed, the switch is closed and a burst of electrical energy is released.

A capacitor consists of two electrical conductors that are not in contact. The conductors are usually separated by a layer of insulating material, dielectric. The dielectric is not essential but it keeps the conductors from touching. When the capacitor is hooked into an electric circuit with a current, one conductor becomes positively charged and the other negative. The conductors are not in contact, so the current cannot flow across the capacitor. The capacitor is now charged up and the switch can be opened. The capacitor is storing electrical energy. When the energy is needed the capacitor is connected to the circuit needing the energy. The current flows rapidly in the opposite direction, discharging the capacitor in a burst of electrical energy.

Capacitors take many shapes, but the simplest is a parallel plate capacitor. It consists of two flat conductors placed parallel to each other. Larger plates can store more charge and hence more energy. Putting the plates close together also allows the capacitor to store more energy. The capacitance of a capacitor is the charge on the conductor divided by the voltage and is used to measure the ability of a capacitor to store energy. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is proportional to the area of the plates divided by the distance between them. This number must then be multiplied by a constant which is a property of the dielectric between the plates. The dielectric has the effect of increasing the capacitance.

Capacitors come in a wide range of sizes. Banks of large capacitors can store and rapidly release large bursts of electrical energy. Among other uses, engineers can use such devices to test a circuit's performance when struck by a bolt of lightning. On an intermediate scale, a camera flash works by storing energy in a capacitor and then releasing it to cause a quick bright flash of light. Electronic circuits use large numbers of small capacitors. For example, a RAM (Random Access Memory) chip uses hundreds of thousands of very small capacitors coupled with switching transistors in a computer memory. Computer information is stored in a binary code of ones and zeros. A charged capacitor is a one, and an uncharged is a zero. These are just a few example of the many uses of capacitors.

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over 7 years ago

Miroslav Provod - static electricity - new knowledge

During an empirical research I acknowledged that all the energy of past civilizations can be put into context with previously unknown properties of static electricity, which are further explained at http://www.miroslavprovod.com
The following three articles are mentioned as an example of the thematic content of the website.
Physics during the age of megaliths
Over more than twenty years, I have realized hundreds of experiments, which were mostly motivated by trying to uncover the reasons and causes of not always convincingly explained working activities of ancient civilizations. In these experiments, I came to the conclusion that many activities of ancient prehistoric cultures were clearly motivated by the desire to exploit knowledge about the attributes of static electricity. Even in academic publications, I found no information on the range of the found properties of static electricity. It cannot be therefore excluded that they have never been published. For this reason, I admit it might be an entirely new knowledge.

Four probably yet unpublished properties of static electricity showed on the theme of implementation of many megalithic and religious structures. Many often seemingly useless construction activities of our ancestors could not be convincingly and logically explained without the connection with these new findings of the properties of static electricity. Historians and archaeologists have often helped themselves out by saying that the motivation for constructing many buildings in our history was based solely on a "ritual" or "calendar reason. All researchers and scientists who "dared" linking knowledge of ancient cultures with modern knowledge of the physical energies were often ridiculed by generally accepted capacities and rendered as being textbook ignorants. The four properties of static electricity introduced are however far from a total explanation of all yet difficult to explain mysteries of our history. In some cases, the new knowledge about the properties of matter in connection with a charge of static electricity provides only partial explanation to the historical mysteries, which suggests that there can be many more unidentified properties of static electricity.

There is no doubt that there is an incorrect interpretation of certain parts of history in connection with the explanation of the motives for constructing many complex, but even the simplest of old buildings. It is therefore necessary to examine the question of logical reasons for building the constructions in context with new physical knowledge, which demonstrates that "knowledge" of ancient and extinct cultures surpassed the knowledge of modern history. The "ritual dogmas" will need to be replaced by new energy knowledge. This will create a real picture of the evolution of world cultures as well as a "springboard" for further research in some historical periods.

However, there are the already mentioned "scientific" obstacles that discourage many that are interested in modern research. These obstacles that psychologically bind the thinking of many researchers that are eager for truth are the skeptics. The skeptics, in an effort to stand out, which they cannot achieve in a different field of science, serve as scientific inquisitors. Being a skeptic is very easy as skeptics always respond to new ideas by saying "Everything that cannot be put in context with known facts cannot be assessed." They refuse to respect the fact that all new findings were found behind the edge of known facts in most cases.

I was saddened, for example, when the skeptics in the Czech Republic attached an ‘erratic boulder’ to Erich von Daniken. Even if Daniken did not bring any revolutionary ideas in his work, he would have done more for the promotion of history than all the inquisitional skeptics combined. Daniken inspired hundreds of thousands of researchers around the world by his extensive work - thousands of them chose their field of work due to his exploratory study. And last but not least, after centuries of neglect many historical monuments that were described by Daniken are now cracking under the pressure of curious tourists. Daniken fully described the megalithic culture in his writings.
Literary works by Erich Daniken are well above the writings of other authors, who constantly repeat pieces of information that have already been published many times. I have studied all the writings of Erich Daniken and I can say that I gained more knowledge about the megaliths from his literature than I would have received by personal visits to the places described. There are more such cases, which I will not address here. I regard the ‘erratic boulder’ given to Erich Daniken as the worst injustice.

Skeptics could not have objected to the way Mr. Daniken describes the megalithic culture, but they likely just disagreed with his opinion that it could not have been created by a ‘textbook type’ civilization and that ancient cultures received the information from some advanced cultures from outer space. And here is the discord, skeptics recognize the current interpretation of history, Mr. Daniken, as well as many logically thinking people, does not. It does not matter where the ancient cultures received the information. The fact is that they must have obtained it somewhere. The view of Mr. Daniken that ancient cultures may have obtained the information from space cannot be assessed in any other way then as a creative idea. Any doubts about the astronauts from other planets can encourage others to think about other explanations. The essence of the literary work of Mr. Daniken is not just getting the source of information, but it is the whole megalithic culture. Reacting to the opinion of Mr. Daniken by granting him an ‘erratic boulder’ seems amateur and inappropriate. People expect from scientists that they will scientifically and properly reason their decision.

If skeptics think that people used to build thousands of megaliths all over the world for ritual and calendar purposes (as is currently mentioned in history) they only compromise themselves in the same way as archaeologists do. Unless it is explained what tools were used to machine the hardest diorite rock, unless it is experimentally demonstrated that it is possible to transport a block of rock weighing one thousand tons to a distance of two kilometers solely by the use of pulling and ropes, unless it is explained how people communicated with each other when they built the same types of megalithic structures around the world the account of Mr. Daniken cannot be clearly and categorically questioned. In this case, the purposely formulated assumption proposed by the skeptics by granting Erich von Daniken an ‘erratic boulder’ stated exactly the opposite. They reached a phase where public begun to question statements given by the skeptics.

The new knowledge about static electricity resulting from the research of megaliths seems like a great hint not only for the research of ancient cultures but also for several other fields. In addition, we can expect further findings of the unknown properties of static electricity.

I remind the importance of the four attributes of static electricity, which I describe in dozens of articles at http://www.miroslavprovod.com
1 - Each material has a charge with three energy components (aura, zones, and interzones).
2 - When auras of two or more charges come into contact they merge into one common charge with common energy components.
3 – By merging charges into a joint charge, there is a gradual equalizing of their energetic potentials.
4 - During the equalizing of energetic potentials there is also a transfer of chemical properties.

The great amount of unsuccessful trials to understand the reason of megalithic structures shows us that the right answer isn’t anywhere in the region of known facts. I have found empirically that the “completion” isn’t any little thing but some laws of nature that have been neglected by the present science. It sounds unbelievably but did men in the ancient history know about some natural laws better than the present science? Surely, they didn’t but knew how to communicate between continents. I think that research in this field will be very interesting.
New knowledge of balanced rocks
The balanced rocks are rocks of great mass and in the same way as menhirs are located in places of great concentration of static elektricity. They differ from menhirs by their more rounded shape and by their location on a small area. They may be swung by the wind due to their precise balancing. In my last article I’m describing an experiment, which shows that matter gains energy when being swung.
Further, I will be dealing with important information about balanced rocks, which could be deducted from information found at GOOGLE – pictures, after typing in “balanced rocks”. “Balanced rocks are located in great amount on five continents. “ This fact eliminates any discussions whether ancient civilisations were able to communicate over great distances or not. We don’t know the answer to the question how they were exchanging information in such a way. However, we have enough organisational experience to say that without communication and coordination it wouldn’t be possible to built thousands of balanced rocks around the globe. The transport of rocks weighing more than hundreds of tons over a rough terrain, many times on top of mountains, and the difficult balancing enabling their swinging motion would be an unsolvable task for our technically advanced civilisation. If the ancient cultures solved this task, we can’t doubt that they used some for us unknown technological progresses.
The usual reason for megalithic structures that they were built for ritual, calendar, agricultural and astronomical reasons wouldn’t hold out for balanced rocks. We can approach the reason for balanced rocks only if we lay away the textbook thought about people with a stone axe and think in a way that we are dealing with a technically developed civilisation, which was ahead of our civilisation in some unknown direction. I will enlarge on these thoughts about the megaliths in this direction in connection with the findings of the empirical research about new properties of matter. I will try to explain how people exchanged information over great distances by the use of balanced rocks.
A menhir is a rock placed in a region of an energy source from which it spontaneously gains energy. At the times of building of menhirs there were only natural energy sources of cosmic energy on the Earth – underground springs, streams, rivers, large streams, sea currents, thunderclouds and others. The energetic value of these sources wasn’t stable; it was affected by the change of flow of water streams and the changes of other sources. Menhirs were affected by this in a way that their energetic parts were in a constant movement by which the zones and inter zones changes their separation. At times of drought it’s not possible to identify them. For the transport of energy it’s necessary that the zones of the individual sources cross each other. This however can’t be accomplished by menhirs due to the instability of their zones. It wasn’t possible to use menhirs for the transport of energy due to the lability of their energetic parts.
The way in which people in the ancient times solved this problem deserves admiration. By the swinging motion they built a source into the rock, which compensated for the changes and disruptions to the external sources – it functioned as a stabilisation element. The energetic parts of balanced rocks became stationary and could be used for an uninterrupted transport of energy. If you visit Chapters / 2003, NO, 6, there is a diagram of energetic parts of two trees which intersect. In the text attached I’m describing how the transport of energy is realized. Therefore, balanced rocks could have functioned as part in the transport energy process in a similar way as retranslation stations of our time. Balanced rocks could have transported energy in two ways. They could have had their own transport network or they could have been just an interconnection of zones of sea currents, great streams and other great sources in their common network, as it looks like at Nazca.
All the megalithic structures on the Earth have the same purpose. Cosmic energy is accumulated in their matter, which people than used for curative and also other reasons. The structures had to undergo one condition – they had to be situated into an energetic part of cosmic energy. The regional difference of the shapes of megalithic structures was usually accommodated to the local material sources and other conditions. In America, mounds were mostly built, which were from mud and no good workmanship was needed. More advanced civilizations built pyramids, ziggurats or other more difficult structures. Also, great structures with energetic regulation were built, such as Teotihuacán, San Lorenzo, Nazca Plain, Laos – stone jars, the pyramid of Acapan or Osireion.
Another category of megalithic structures are Easter Islands, Nan Madol, Zimbabwe and others. These probably ensured the connection and maybe even intensification of zones over great distances. In connection with previous results, we could await interesting results from further research.
BOWL LIKE CAVERNS OF MEGALITHS
Bowl like or pan like caverns that were dug into surfaces of megaliths in horizontal, vertical or skewed orientation are one of many mysteries associated with megaliths. They are located across the whole globe in great quantities. For example, thousands of such caverns dug into stone blocks were found only in Australia. Their purpose would be easier to find if we first get to know the physical fundamentals of this phenomenon on similar examples in present age or the middle ages.
Every underground or over ground water flow produces static charge. This is formed according to the well known physical phenomenon due to the friction of water molecules with the rock base or the pipe in which the water flows. After this I can continue only by assuming yet unknown properties of static charge, which have come out of long empirical research.
Every piece of matter has its specific charge, which spontaneously changes its magnitude due to the effects of other charges. In case of water flows and other charges the static charge produced by friction increases not only the charge of water but also the charge of other matter. The value of charge of the water flow equals the sum of both charges.
If we place a rock into the charge of the water flow its charge increases by an amount that equals the amount of charge of the water flow. If we cut a cavern into the surface of the rock that we fill up with water the water slowly takes over the energy of the rock. If we take the water away from the cavern of the rock the water will slowly lose its gained energy – it will be absorbed by other surrounding charges.
If we summarize the phenomena described above we get a piece of knowledge that explains why there were caverns being cut into megaliths. It has to be emphasised that the transfer of energy between the charges takes place not only by direct contact of auras of both charges but also by contact of their zones. The caverns were cut into megaliths (a rock placed into a source of greater charge increases its charge and becomes a megalith) for the purpose of people having access to energetic water even further from the water flow. When this water was consumed it increased their bodily charge
This explains the use of the caverns that could be filled with water. The caverns that were placed in vertical locations function in a different way. However, this is also in accordance with known physical laws. The function of the parabolic shape of the cavern could be compared to parabolic mirrors of reflectors that channel and amplify the energy of the rock into one place where the charge of human body can also gain energy.
At present age we use the energy of water flows in much more complicated way. We visit spas due to the curing properties of water that springs on the surface. For the same purpose people have visited many places during pilgrimages since middle ages.
The explanation of the caverns in rocks stated above may have a negative effect on the distribution of mineral sparkling waters. A sparkling water that may be bought in plastic bottles does not have any energetic charge anymore. It contains only minerals it gained in the surroundings through which it flowed. The charge of water of different magnitudes is easy to create and it is also easy to add various kinds of minerals to the water. It can be expected that a device that will create energetic mineral sparkling water will belong to the accessories located in every kitchen.
Like in other cases, the caverns in megaliths gave us new pieces of knowledge that do not agree with the current view of history. What needs to be explained is who coordinated the whole action with caverns. According to the current view of history people at different continents did not know about each other. Even if there could have been a contact between them the overcoming of the language barrier is not yet explained. The hundreds of thousands of megaliths that are located across the whole globe prove that it is the end of the wrong stories. I think that it would be beneficial if we stop making the megalithic culture a ritual and calendar propriety and instead of that if we state that some historic realities are still located outside of the scope of current science. This will be largely necessary for further research.
The new knowledge about static electricity resulting from the research of megaliths seems like a great hint not only for the research of ancient cultures but also for several other fields. In addition, we can expect further findings of the unknown properties of static electricity.

Further 45 articles on this topic can be found at www.miroslavprovod.com
2011-08-05
Miroslav Provod
centrum11@volny.cz