Other Free Encyclopedias » Science Encyclopedia » Science & Philosophy: Pebi- to History of Philosophy - Indifferentism » Periodization of the Arts - What Is A Period?, Periodization And Globalization: Mesoamerica As A Case Study, Feminism And Periodization

Periodization of the Arts - Conclusion

history press york university

No single system of periodization has emerged. Some observers regard the existence of multiple systems based on varying criteria as a symptom of the arbitrariness and illogicality of period schemes, while others interpret the same multiplicity as a positive result of the study of history. In this view, each periodization offers a possible strategy for the study of art, which encompasses widely diverse activities, including writing surveys, artistic biographies, catalogues raisonnés, iconographic analyses, or cross-cultural overviews. If the definition of periods and their temporal limits can be regarded as provisional strategies rather than objective reality, then the choice of periodization schema can be determined by the problem at hand. Different systems of periodization can be regarded as beneficial rather than chaotic when they permit the same masses of data to be organized by different principles and to yield different insights. Thus the ongoing debate about periodization contributes to the continuing vitality of the disciplines related to the visual arts.


Ackerman, James S. "Style." In Problems in Aesthetics: An Introductory Book of Readings, edited by Morris Weitz, 308–324. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

Bennett, Wendell C., and Junius B. Bird. Andean Culture History. New York: Natural History Press, 1964.

Buszek, Maria Elena. "Waving not Drowning: Thinking about Third-Wave Feminism in the U.S." Make: The Magazine of Women's Art, no. 86 (December 1999–February 2000): 39–40.

Davis, Whitney. "Periodization." In The Dictionary of Art, edited by Jane Turner. Vol. 24. London and New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 1996.

Dolan, Jill. The Feminist Spectator as Critic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.

Fernie, Eric, ed. Art History and Its Methods. London: Phaidon, 1995.

Focillon, Henri. The Life of Forms in Art. Translated by George Kubler. New York: Zone Books, 1992.

Fogle, French Rowe. A Critical Study of William Drummond of Hawthornden. New York: King's Crown Press, 1952.

Fry, Roger. Vision and Design. London: Chatto and Windus, 1920. Reprint, London: Oxford University Press, 1947.

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Gallie, W. B. Philosophy and the Historical Understanding. 2nd ed. New York: Schocken, 1968.

Gombrich, E. H. Norm and Form: Studies in the Art of the Renaissance. 4th ed. Oxford: Phaidon, 1985.

——. "Style." In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by David L. Sills. Vol. 15. New York: Macmillan and Free Press, 1968

Hart, Joan Goldhammer. Heinrich Wölfflin: An Intellectual Biography. Ph.D. diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1981.

Kubler, George. The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1962.

——. Studies in Ancient American and European Art: The Collected Essays of George Kubler. Edited by Thomas F. Reese. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.

Miller, Mary Ellen. The Art of Mesoamerica. 3rd ed. London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 2001.

Minor, Vernon Hyde. Art History's History. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2001.

Nochlin, Linda. Women, Art, and Power: And Other Essays. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Podro, Michael. The Critical Historians of Art. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982.

Riegl, Alois. Late Roman Art Industry. Translated and annotated by Rolf Winkes. Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider, 1985.

Schapiro, Meyer, H. W. Janson, and E. H. Gombrich. "Criteria of Periodization in the History of European Art." New Literary History 1, no. 2 (winter 1970): 113–125.

Sparshott, F. E. "Notes on the Articulation of Time." New Literary History 1, no. 2 (winter 1970): 311–334.

Vasari, Giorgio. Lives of the Artists. Translated by Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Warnke, Martin. Political Landscape: The Art History of Nature. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Wölfflin, Heinrich. Principles of Art History: The Problem of the Development of Style in Later Art. Translated by M. D. Hottinger. 7th ed. New York: Dover, 1940.

——. Renaissance and Baroque. Translated by Kathrin Simon. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1964.

Kaylee Spencer-Ahrens

Linnea Wren

Periodization of the Arts - Bibliography [next] [back] Periodization of the Arts - Feminism And Periodization

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or