1 minute read

Heaven and Hell (Asian Focus)


Heaven and hell are not only religious ideas but also philosophical, social, and political concepts in Asia. The visual forms of heaven and hell are mostly local products with identifiable regional features and could be better understood in local historical context.


Gómez, O. Luis, trans. The Land of Bliss: The Paradise of the Buddha of Measureless Light. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Law, Bimala C. Heaven and Hell in Buddhist Perspective. Reprint, Varanasi, India: Bhartiya Publishing House, reprint, 1973.

Loewe, Michael. Ways to Paradise: The Chinese Quest for Immortality. London and Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1979.

Qiang, Ning. Art, Religion, and Politics in Medieval China: The Dunhuang Cave of the Zhai Family. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Soothill, William Edward, and Lewis Hodous, comps. A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. Reprint, Taiwan: Buddha-Light Publishing House, 1979.

Teiser, Stephen F. The Ghost Festival in Medieval China. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

——. The Scripture on the Ten Kings and the Making of Purgatory in Medieval Chinese Buddhism. Honululu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.

Wu, Hung, and Ning Qiang. "Paradise Images in Early Chinese Art." In The Flowering of a Foreign Faith: New Studies in Chinese Buddhist Art, edited by Janet Baker, 54–67. New Delhi: Marg Publication, 1998.

Ning Qiang

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Habit memory: to HeterodontHeaven and Hell (Asian Focus) - Heaven, Hell, Conclusion, Bibliography