6 minute read

Globalization in Asia

Western Thinkers In Japan

Concerning the reception of Western philosophers of global issues, Japan's reaction is somewhat more guarded than China's. Heidegger is an exception. His work is still read with excitement because of the early contact with renowned Japanese scholars such as Kuki Shuzo and Nishitani Keiji. Heidegger's compassion for mutual understanding of Eastern and Western life in a global context is foremost in these thinkers. Attesting to his popularity, Japan has attempted more translations of Heidegger's 1927 magnum opus, Sein und Zeit (English trans. Being and Time, 1962), and probably published more secondary sources than any other nation.

Habermas and Derrida have received varied responses. Since Japanese discussion of premodern and modern societies began in the nineteenth century, much of Habermas's debates with postmodern thinkers such as Jean-François Lyotard are considered outdated. Naoki Sakai sees Habermas's position on global communicative rationality as obsolete. Habermas's "Occidental rationalism" juxtaposes Western reason to Eastern myth in a naive way. While the West might need the East as a "mirror" for its own clarification, "Habermas obviously does not ask if the mirror may be extremely obscure" (p. 96). Instead, Sakai echoes Iwabuchi in arguing that "it is understandable that the discursive object called Japan has presented a heterogeneous instance that could not be easily integrated into the global configuration organized according to the pairing of the modern and the premodern" (p. 97).

In regard to Derrida, the Japanese have maintained that their society has no structure, and therefore deconstruction is not possible. Japan is so much a product of globalization's hyper-accelerated consumption that the very space of such academic talk is already swallowed up. Hence, the transcriptions of Derrida's conversations would be consumed (and forgotten) in one week. From a Japanese perspective, Japan is caught in something like a McLuhanesque series of conundrums between the negativities of mass consumption and the liberating powers of media knowledge.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Benedetti, Paul, and Nancy DeHart, eds. Forward through the Rearview Mirror: Reflections on and by Marshall McLuhan. Toronto: Prentice-Hall Canada, 1996.

Chang Chung-yuan. "Commentary on J. Glenn Gray's 'Splendor of the Simple.'" Philosophy East and West 20, no. 3 (July 1970): 241–246.

Cheng Chun-Ying. "An Onto-Hermeneutic Interpretation of Twentieth-Century Chinese Philosophy: Identity and Vision." In Contemporary Chinese Philosophy, edited by Cheng Chung-Ying and Nicholas Bunnin, 365–404. London and Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2002.

Craig, Timothy J., and Richard King, eds. Global Goes Local: Popular Culture in Asia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2002.

De Bary, William Theodore. "Preface." In Confucianism and Human Rights, edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

De Bary, William Theodore, and Tu Weiming, eds. Confucianism and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Dirlik, Arif, and Xudong Zhang, eds. Postmodernism and China. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000.

Fairbank, John King. China: A New History. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. Enlarged ed., with Merle Goldman, 1998.

Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Gadamer in Conversation: Reflections and Commentary. Edited and translated by Richard E. Palmer. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.

Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2nd ed. Translated by J. R. Foster and Charles Hartman. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Goulding, Jay. "Li Chenyang, the Tao Encounters the West: Explorations in Comparative Philosophy." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 2, no. 1 (winter 2002): 166–171.

——. Visceral Manifestation and the East Asian Communicative Body. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press, forthcoming.

Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. 1927. Reprint, translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.

Hirth, Friedrich. China and the Roman Orient: Researches into Their Ancient and Mediaeval Relations as Represented in Old Chinese Records. Shanghai and Hong Kong: Kelly and Walsh, 1885. Reprint, Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1975.

Innis, Harold A. The Bias of Communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1951.

Ivy, Marilyn. "Critical Texts, Mass Artifacts: The Consumption of Knowledge in Postmodern Japan." In Postmodernism and Japan, edited by Masao Miyoshi and H. D. Harootunian, 21–46. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1989.

——. Discourses of the Vanishing: Modernity, Phantasm, Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Iwabuchi, Koichi. Recentering Globalization: Popular Culture and Japanese Transnationalism. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.

Jameson, Fredric, and Masao Miyoshi, eds. The Cultures of Globalization. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998.

Jansen, Marius B. China in the Tokugawa World. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992.

Jary, David, and Julia Jary. The HarperCollins Dictionary of Sociology. 3rd ed. Glasgow: HarperCollins, 2000.

Li, Anshan. A History of Chinese Overseas in Africa. Beijing: Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2000.

Li, Chenyang. The Tao Encounters the West: Explorations in Comparative Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Liu, Kang. "Is There an Alternative to (Capitalist) Globalization? The Debate about Modernity in China." In his The Cultures of Globalization. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998.

McLuhan, Marshall, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: Signet Books, 1964.

McLuhan, Marshall, and Quentin Fiore. The Medium Is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects. New York: Bantam Books, 1967.

McLuhan, Marshall, and Bruce R. Powers. The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Menzies, Gavin. 1421: The Year China Discovered America. New York: William Morrow, 2003.

Miyoshi, Masao, and H. D. Harootunian, eds. Postmodernism and Japan. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1989.

Morley, David, and Kevin Robins. Spaces of Identity: Global Media, Electronic Landscapes, and Cultural Boundaries. New York: Routledge, 1995.

O'Sullivan, Tim, et al. Key Concepts in Communication and Cultural Studies. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Palmer, Richard E. Hermeneutics. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1969.

——. "Seven Key Terms in the Philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer." Lecture presented at Anhui Normal University, Wuhu China, 22–24 June 2002.

Paludan, Ann. Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-by- Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998.

Parkes, Graham. "Translator's Preface." In Heidegger's Hidden Sources: East Asian Influences on His Work, by Reinhard May. Translated by Graham Parkes. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Knopf, 1993.

Sakai, Naoki. "Modernity and Its Critique: The Problem of Universalism and Particularism." In Postmodernism and Japan, edited by Masao Miyoshi and H. D. Harootunian. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1989.

Tanaka, Stefan. Japan's Orient: Rendering Pasts into History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Tong, Shijun. "Habermas and Chinese Discourse of Modernity." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 1, no. 1 (winter 2001): 81–106.

Varley, Paul. Japanese Culture. 4th ed. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000.

Wang, Jing. High Culture Fever: Politics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Deng's China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Wilson, Rob, and Wimal Dissanayake, eds. Global/Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1996.

Xu Shi Gu, executive ed. A New English-Chinese Dictionary. 2nd ed. Beijing and New York: Commercial Press and John Wiley and Sons, 1984.

Yang, Jeff, et al. Eastern Standard Time: A Guide to Asian Influence on American Culture from Astro Boy to Zen Buddhism. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Zhang Dainian. Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy. Translated and edited by Edmund Ryden. New Haven, Conn., and Beijing: Yale University and Foreign Language Press, 2002.

Zhang Ning. "Jacques Derrida's First Visit to China: A Summary of His Lectures and Seminars." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 2, no. 1 (winter 2002): 141–162.

Jay Goulding

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Gastrula to Glow dischargeGlobalization in Asia - Asian Views Of Globalization, The Global Village, Definitions Of Globalization: West And East, Globalization In Classical China