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Globalization in Asia

Definitions Of Globalization: West And East

Globalization is itself an equivocal term. There are as many definitions of globalization as there are interpreters. Globalization is not as value laden as "cultural imperialism" or "orientalism." The latter two terms are more prone to views of domination, especially by the West over the East. The following definitions are neutral. David Jary and Julia Jary define globalization in HarperCollins Dictionary of Sociology as: "a multifaceted process in which the world is becoming more and more interconnected and communication is becoming instantaneous" (p. 249). This includes: "(a) the transformation of the spatial arrangement and organization of social relations involving 'action at a distance,' a stretching of social relations and transactions (and power) …; (b) the increasing extensity, intensity, velocity and impact of global social relations …; (c) the creation of new networks and nodes—the 'network society' …; (d) a dialectic between the global and the local" (p. 249). Unlike imperialism or orientalism, globalization is rather open-ended. The "have" nations do not automatically overshadow the "have not" nations. Tim O'Sullivan and colleagues define globalization as "the growth and acceleration of economic and cultural networks which operate on a worldwide scale and basis. Globalization is strongly linked with debates about 'world culture,' and emerged as a critical concept in the late 1980s. The term refers to the whole complex of flows and processes which have increasingly transcended national boundaries in the last twenty years" (p. 130).

In China, there is a distinction between internationalization (guojihua) and globalization (quanqiuhua). Internationalization refers to trading with wealthy nations, such as the United States or Germany. This is generally considered good for China's world development. Globalization refers literally to matters of change in the entire world, such as ecological considerations and appropriate responses. McLuhan's term "global village" (quanqiucun) entered Chinese-English dictionaries in the early 1980s possibly because of China's keen interest in friendly relations with Canada and Canadian thinkers. By contrast, in Japan, internationalization (kokusaika) is a heavily laden term that is either extremely good or bad, depending on one's national allegiance; globalization (gurobarizeshon or gurobaruka) is a term that conjures up fears of falling behind, especially as Japan seems to recede into an economic sunset in the wake of China's emergence as a world force. On the one hand, globalization for Japan means that the goddess Amaterasu is backing into her cave, a time in Shinto legend when the world falls into darkness. On the other hand, globalization for China means the awakening of a sleeping dragon or a time of renewal, revitalization, and resurrection.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Gastrula to Glow dischargeGlobalization in Asia - Asian Views Of Globalization, The Global Village, Definitions Of Globalization: West And East, Globalization In Classical China