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Black Consciousness


Biko, Stephen. Black Consciousness in South Africa. Edited by Millard Arnold. New York: Vintage, 1979.

——. "The Definition of Black Consciousness." 1971. Available at http://www.azapo.org.za/documents/bcc.htm.

——. I Write What I Like: A Selection of His Writings. Edited by Aelred Stubbs. London: Bowerdean Press, 1996.

Frederickson, George M. Black Liberation: A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Mandela, Nelson. "Address by President Nelson Mandela at the Commemoration of the Twentieth Anniversary of Steve Biko's Death," East London, 12 September 1997. Available at http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/mandela/1997/sp970912.html.

Mark, Anthony W. Lessons of the Struggle: South African Internal Opposition, 1960–1990. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Moodley, Kogila. "The Continued Impact of Black Consciousness in South Africa." Journal of Modern African Studies 29, no. 2 (June 1991): 237–252.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Bilateral symmetry to Boolean algebraBlack Consciousness - Bibliography