While the triple heritage concept is an important starting point for understanding African architectural history, scholars have to look beyond the traditional sources by exploring the influences of late-twentieth-century capitalism in order to understand the forces that are propelling contemporary African architectural practices. Following the independence movements of the 1960s, leaders of the newly independent African states sent many students to Europe and the Americas to study architecture. Also, a number of schools of architecture were established in Africa, and several postcolonial cities, such as Dodoma, Tanzania; Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire; and Abuja, Nigeria's new federal capital, which was designed for three million inhabitants, were built. These twentieth-century modernist projects remain to be studied and documented.
Aradeon, Susan B. "Al-Sahili: The Historians' Myth of Architectural Technology Transfer from North Africa." Journal des Africanistes 59, nos. 1–2 (1989): 99–131.
Davidson, Basil. African Civilization Revisited: From Antiquity to Modern Times. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press, 1991.
Denyer, Susan. African Traditional Architecture: An Historical and Geographical Perspective. London: Heinemann, 1978.
Elleh, Nnamdi. African Architecture: Evolution and Transformation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
Garlake, Peter. Early Art and Architecture of Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
——. Great Zimbabwe. London: Thames and Hudson, 1973.
Hoag, John D. Islamic Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977.
Kultermann, Udo. New Architecture in Africa. Translated by Ernst Flesch. New York: Universe Books, 1963.
——. New Directions in African Architecture. Translated by John Maass. New York: George Braziller, 1969.
Mazrui, Ali A. The Africans: A Triple Heritage. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986.
Moughtin, J. C. Hausa Architecture. London: Ethnographica, 1985.
Prussin, Labelle. African Nomadic Architecture: Space, Place, and Gender. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995.
——. Hatumere: Islamic Design in West Africa. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.
Vansina, Jan. Art History in Africa: An Introduction to Method. New York: Longman, 1984.
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