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Arnheim, Rudolf. Visual Thinking. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

Caglioti, Giuseppe. The Dynamics of Ambiguity. Berlin: Springer, 1992.

——. "Perception of Ambiguous Figures: A Qualitative Model Based on Synergetics and Quantum Mechanics." In Ambiguity in Mind and Nature: Multistable Cognitive Phenomena, edited by Peter Kruse and Michael Stadler. Berlin: Springer, 1995. Psychologists, physicists, neurologists, and chemists analyze multistability in perception.

Empson, William. Seven Types of Ambiguity. London: Chatto and Windus, 1953.

Haken, Hermann. Synergetics, an Introduction: Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions and Self-organization in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 1983.

Hoffmann, Roald. The Same and Not the Same. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Piaget, Jean. La construction du réel chez l'enfant. Neuchâtel, France: Delachaux and Niestlé, 1937.

Prigogine, Ilya. La fin des certitudes: temps, chaos et les lois de la nature. Paris: O. Jacob, 1996.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Tractatus logico philosophicus. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1922.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Ambiguity - Ambiguity to Anticolonialism in Middle East - Ottoman Empire And The Mandate SystemAmbiguity - Ambiguity, Probability, Uncertainty, And The Arrow Of Time, The Dynamics Of Ambiguity, Ambiguity As A Permanent Cultural Value