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Bousbina, Said. "Les mérites de la Tijaniyya d'après 'Rimah' d'al Hajj Umar." Islam et sociétés au sud du Sahara 3 (1989): 253–259. A brief discussion of Tijaniyya doctrines related to salvation as exposed in the Rimah hizb al-rahim of 'Umar Tall.

De Jong, Frederick, and Bernd Radtke, eds. Islamic Mysticism Contested: Thirteen Centuries of Controversies and Polemics. Leiden, Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 1999. The most comprehensive and recent survey of Islamic mysticism and its opponents.

Robinson, David. Paths of Accommodation: Muslim Societies and French Colonial Authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880–1920. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000. A study of the emerging pattern of cooperation between Muslim societies and French colonial authorities in Senegal and Mauritania.

Robinson, David, and Jean-Louis Triaud, eds. Le temps des marabouts: Itinéraires et stratégies islamiques en Afrique occidentale française v. 1880–1960. Paris: Karthala, 1997. Rise of Sufi orders in West Africa in the context of French colonial rule.

Triaud, Jean-Louis, and David Robinson, eds. La Tijâniyya. Une confrérie musulmane à la conquête de l'Afrique. Paris: Karthala, 2000. A survey of the most widespread Sufi order in sub-Saharan Africa.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Stomium to SwiftsSufism - Bibliography