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Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Eltis, David, Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and Herbert S. Klein, eds. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Finley, M. I. Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology. New York: Viking Press, 1980.

Fogel, Robert William. Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery. New York: Norton, 1989.

Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974.

Nieboer, H. J. Slavery as an Industrial System: Ethnological Researches. 2nd, rev. ed. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1910.

Patterson, Orlando. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Semiotics to SmeltingSlavery - Abolition, Modern Slavery In The Americas, Bibliography