Beccaria, Cesare. On Crimes and Punishments. 1764. Reprint, translated by Henry Paolucci. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963.
Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. 1789. Reprint, edited by J. H. Burns and H. L. A. Hart. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Ezorsky, Gertrude, ed. Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1972.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage, 1977.
Garland, David. Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Hart, H. L. A. Punishment and Responsibility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Hegel, G. W. F. Elements of the Philosophy of Right. 1821. Reprint, edited by Allen W. Wood, translated by H. B. Nisbet. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Kant, Immanuel. The Metaphysics of Morals. 1797. Reprint, translated by Mary Gregor. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Mackenzie, Mary Margaret. Plato on Punishment. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morals. 1887. Reprint, translated by Walter Kaufmann. New York: Vintage, 1967.
Plato. The Laws. Translated by Trevor J. Saunders. New York: Penguin Books, 1970.
Rushe, Georg, and Otto Kirchheimer. Punishment and Social Structure. 1939. Reprint, New York: Russell and Russell, 1967.
Ten, C. L. Crime, Guilt, and Punishment: A Philosophical Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Tunick, Mark. Punishment: Theory and Practice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
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