1 minute read


constructive forces (con-STRUK-tiv FORSS) — processes by which rock is created, such as crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, and deposition of sediment

core (KOHR) — the Earth's center, it is made of an inner core and an outer core

crust (KRUHST) — the outer layer of the Earth

crustal deformation (KRUS-tull dee-for-MAY-shun) — when the shape of land (or crust) is changed or deformed

destructive force (dee-STRUK-tiv FORSS) — processes by which rock is broken down, such as erosion and weathering

erosion (e-ROH-shuhn) — the process by which rock particles are moved

eruption (ee-RUHP-shun) — occurs when pressure forces the release of lava from a volcano

fossils (FOSS-uhls) — the remains or impressions left in rocks by plants or animals

horizons (huh-RIYZ-uhns) — layers of soil

igneous rock (IG-nee-us ROK) — rock formed when magma cools

inorganic matter (IN-or-GAHN-ick MAT uhr) — non-living matter, such as sand, silt, and clay

lithification (lith-if-ih-CAY-shun) — the process that causes sediment to turn into rock

lithosphere (LITH-oh-sfeer) — a layer of hardened rock made up of the crust and the upper mantle

mantle (MAN-tl) — the thickest part of the Earth that lies just below the crust

metamorphic rock (meht-ah-MORE-fick ROK) — rock that has changed from one type to another by pressure or heat

mineral (MIHN-er-uhl) — a naturally occurring crystalline substance

organic matter (or-GAHN-ick MAT uhr) — the remains and waste of plants and animals

plate tectonics (PLAYT tek-TAH-nix) — the theory that the lithosphere is made up of moving plates

sediment (SED-uh-ment) — small particles of worn away rocks

sedimentary rock (sed-uh-MENT-tuh-ree ROK) — new rock formed from the sediment of older rocks

soil (SOYL) — the thin layer at the very top of the lithosphere consisting of weathered rock and organic matter

soil erosion (SOYL??e-ROH-shuhn) — when wind, rain, or other events move soil from one place to another

weathering (WETH-uhr-ing) — the breaking down of rocks through exposure to the atmosphere

Additional topics

Science Encyclopedia for KidsGeology