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Extreme Changes of State - Low Boiling Points

liquid iron melting carbon

Metals such as iron and steel can be made into different shapes. Some iron shapes are made by melting the iron. The liquid iron is then poured into a mold. When it cools down, it becomes a solid again. The solid takes the shape of the mold.

Ice to Steam Molten iron being poured into a mold.

Some objects get very hot when they are used, so they must be made of materials with high melting points. That way, they do not melt or change shape while they are being used. The melting point of the material must be higher than the temperature the object will reach.

The melting points of some metals
Metal Melting point
aluminum 1,220°F (660°C)
gold 1,947°F (1,064°C)
iron 2,795°F (1,535°C)
silver 1,764°F (962°C)
steel 2,500°F (1,371°C)
titanium 3,020°F (1,660°C)

Ice to Steam The temperature of a jet engine can get as hot as 2,800°F (1,538°C). The engine must be made of materials with high melting points. One such material is titanium.

Low Boiling Points

The air around you is a mixture of gases. These gases include nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. All of these substances have very low boiling points. This means that even in the coldest weather, the temperature does not get low enough to make them condense into liquids.

Boiling Points of Some Gases
Gas Boiling point
carbon dioxide −108°F (−78°C)
methane −263°F (−164°C)
oxygen −297°F (−183°C)
nitrogen −321°F (−196°C)

FREEZE-DRIED BODIES

In Sweden, a dead body can be frozen using liquid nitrogen. The body becomes very brittle. It is then vibrated, which breaks it up into a powder. The powder is buried. It forms compost that can be used by plants in less than a year.

Ice to Steam Scientists use liquid nitrogen to freeze cells for use in research.

DRY ICE

Ice to Steam Carbon dioxide is an unusual chemical. If you heat solid carbon dioxide, it does not become a liquid. It changes straight into a gas. This change is called subliming. Solid carbon dioxide is known as “dry ice.” It is used to make “smoke” effects on stage.

Some of the gases are liquids in other places in the solar system. Titan is one of the moons of Saturn. The temperature on its surface is about -289°F (-178°C). This is low enough for the gas methane to become a liquid. Pools of liquid methane are seen on the moon's surface.

Volcanoes and Lava - What Happens to Lava When It Freezes?, Danger, Volcano! [next] [back] Evaporation - How Can You Speed Up Evaporation?, How Does Evaporation Keep You Cool?

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25 days ago

NOVEMBER 19, 2017

HELLO, HOW ARE YOU.

I HOPE THAT THINGS ARE GOING WELL.

TODAY, I WAS GOOGLING HYDERABAD.

MICHILPATNAM BEACH
HYDERABAD
TELUGA
MANGINAPUDI BEACH
I GRADUATED FROM GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE INDIA
ANDHRA PRADESH 6AM-7PM
SURYALANKA BEACH
VODAREUU BEACH
UPPADA BEACH

DO YOU HAVE A BLAST FURNACE?

HAVE YOU BEEN HOME FOR A VISIT RECENTLY?

IRON
GOLD
CALIFORNIUM

BLAST FURNACE IS USED, TO CUBE GOLD.
PLEASE BRING HOME GOLD BULLION CUBES.
OR
YOU COULD MAKE SNOW.
DO NOT MAKE ME EAT THE GOLD.

CYANIDE, + MERCURY, = GOLD.

SO, WHAT IF I MADE NO MONEY. MAYBE I MADE SOME MONEY AFTER ALL. WE'LL TALK, WE'LL HAVE FUN, WE'LL GO OUT TO DINNER, IF THE FOOD AND WATER SITUATION IMPROVES.


THERE IS A PROBLEM. AT THE MOMENT, I DON'T HAVE MY NICE HOUSE, MY NICE CLOTHES, MY NICE CARS, MY NICE JEWELRY, MY JETS, MY YACHTS, AND OTHER PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE THIEVING TO LAUGH IN MY FACE. I WOULDN'T LIKE THAT, YOU WOULDN'T LIKE THAT. PERSONS WHO DIDN'T WORK, DIDN'T TRY TO WORK, DIDN'T TRY TO BE GOOD SO THAT WE COULD WORK, DIDN'T FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS, DIDN'T SHOW RESPECT, DIDN'T BEHAVE DECENTLY, DIDN'T KNOW HOW TO BE POLITE, AND DIDN'T REALIZE THAT THEY WERE MAKING A BAD IMPRESSION, RUDE, IGNORANT, BEGGARS, BITCHING.

WE WILL SURVIVE THIS.

THANK YOU,
ADMIRAL MAUREEN ROTHCHILD Q.C.
OWNER.

Vote down Vote up

25 days ago

NOVEMBER 19, 2017

HELLO, HOW ARE YOU.

I HOPE THAT THINGS ARE GOING WELL.

TODAY, I WAS GOOGLING HYDERABAD.

MICHILPATNAM BEACH
HYDERABAD
TELUGA
MANGINAPUDI BEACH
I GRADUATED FROM GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE INDIA
ANDHRA PRADESH 6AM-7PM
SURYALANKA BEACH
VODAREUU BEACH
UPPADA BEACH

DO YOU HAVE A BLAST FURNACE?

HAVE YOU BEEN HOME FOR A VISIT RECENTLY?

IRON
GOLD
CALIFORNIUM

BLAST FURNACE IS USED, TO CUBE GOLD.
PLEASE BRING HOME GOLD BULLION CUBES.
OR
YOU COULD MAKE SNOW.
DO NOT MAKE ME EAT THE GOLD.

CYANIDE, + MERCURY, = GOLD.

SO, WHAT IF I MADE NO MONEY. MAYBE I MADE SOME MONEY AFTER ALL. WE'LL TALK, WE'LL HAVE FUN, WE'LL GO OUT TO DINNER, IF THE FOOD AND WATER SITUATION IMPROVES.


THERE IS A PROBLEM. AT THE MOMENT, I DON'T HAVE MY NICE HOUSE, MY NICE CLOTHES, MY NICE CARS, MY NICE JEWELRY, MY JETS, MY YACHTS, AND OTHER PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE THIEVING TO LAUGH IN MY FACE. I WOULDN'T LIKE THAT, YOU WOULDN'T LIKE THAT. PERSONS WHO DIDN'T WORK, DIDN'T TRY TO WORK, DIDN'T TRY TO BE GOOD SO THAT WE COULD WORK, DIDN'T FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS, DIDN'T SHOW RESPECT, DIDN'T BEHAVE DECENTLY, DIDN'T KNOW HOW TO BE POLITE, AND DIDN'T REALIZE THAT THEY WERE MAKING A BAD IMPRESSION, RUDE, IGNORANT, BEGGARS, BITCHING.

WE WILL SURVIVE THIS.

THANK YOU,
ADMIRAL MAUREEN ROTHCHILD Q.C.
OWNER.

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over 1 year ago

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